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Minutes of the IWW Founding Convention - Part 7


Industrial Workers of the World


Friday, June 30


The convention was called to order shortly after nine o’clock by Chairman Haywood.

The roll of members was called by Secretary Trautmann.

Minutes of the previous day’s meeting were read by the Secretary, and there being no corrections, were declared approved.

A communication from Manager Greenebaum, of the Indiana Transportation Company, was read and placed on file.

Secretary Trautmann: Here is a resolution, handed in by a club that was organized as an Industrial Union Workers’ Club, with the names attached to the resolution to be handed in. It is too lengthy to be read now. I have given it to the Resolutions Committee.

DEL. MOYER: Excuse me for breaking into your business to make a statement as to the Committee on Constitution. The committee met last night and organized, and decided that if they were to do their work as a Constitution Committee they could not attend this convention during the day. They feel that it is going to take some time to prepare the constitution and by-laws to govern this movement if launched, and while they would like and I believe they should take part in the deliberations of this body during its sessions they feel that it would be impossible for them to do that and forward the work that has been allotted to them. I would like to have the sense of this body as to whether or not they are going to continue in session while the committee that has been appointed is doing its work. Whatever the action of the convention may be, the Constitution Committee will be compelled to retire and take up the work to which they have been appointed.

DEL. T. J. HAGERTY: I would suggest that the Constitution Committee make some suggestions to this body as to what is required.

DEL. HALL: I think that the work of the committees is sufficiently important and takes enough of the delegates away from the convention that we can well afford to adjourn during the time that they are working. Therefore, I move you that as soon as the communications now before the convention are finished we adjourn until Saturday at one o’clock to hear the reports of the different committees. (Seconded.)

THE CHAIRMAN: It has been regularly moved and seconded that as soon as the communications that are before the convention have been read the convention stand adjourned until one o’clock Saturday to hear the reports of the different committees.

DEL. DE LEON: I would like to ask Brother Hall whether he would not accept an amendment making it Saturday at nine o’clock and then when the convention meets if the committees are not ready or substantially ready to report and finish their work, that we can adjourn till one. It is possible that having the whole day virtually to work in, they will be through with their work. But if the amendment is not accepted I shall not push it.

DEL. HALL: If that is the sense of the Chairman of the Constitution Committee, that they can finish their work and make a report by Saturday at nine o’clock, I will accept the amendment—accept the suggestion.

DEL. MOYER: I am not prepared to say what time it is going to take the Constitution Committee to submit a report to this convention. That will have to be determined after the committee have completed their work. If we can have it ready at nine o’clock tomorrow we will submit the report at that time. If not, we will continue at work until we have it completed.

DEL. SIMONS: I think there will be some of the committees ready to report by nine o’clock to-morrow morning, at least something, while we will have to get along without some one of the committees at some sessions. Therefore it seems to me that at nine o’clock to-morrow morning we will be ready to do business undoubtedly on some things. Some committees will no doubt be able to do the same at every session all along. We can attend to some business with some sixty members out, and therefore I support the amendment.

THE CHAIRMAN: Will the mover of the motion accept the suggestion of Delegate De Leon to adjourn until nine instead of one?


THE CHAIRMAN: The motion stands that we adjourn until nine o’clock to-morrow morning after the reading of the communications that are on the table. Are you ready for the question?

DEL. KERRIGAN: Why not adjourn and let the committees report to the convention at half-past five o’clock? It may be the committees will be ready to report at that time. Then we may be able to do business during the day. At all events, adjourning till to-morrow morning I think is a rather long time, because the Constitution Committee should have that Preamble adopted anyhow by five o’clock to-night. As to the details of the arrangement of industries, about the scavengers and diamond cutters and machinists and others and how they will be arranged in the circle as set out in the program, that is not a matter of very great importance, though it might appear so to some workman to know whether he was to be classified with the trolley drivers one day and with the machinists another day, and so on. I think that all that the Manifesto calls for could probably be covered generally for the present, and the details can be covered at a future session. I think it would take much longer than a day to do that.

THE CHAIRMAN: The question is that the convention stand adjourned until to-morrow morning at nine o’clock after the communications are read.

DEL. WILKE: I do not approve adjourning the convention till nine o’clock to-morrow morning because the important committees have absolutely nothing in their hands to work upon. I am a member of the Resolutions Committee, and not a solitary resolution has been presented to that committee. Consequently if you adjourn till nine o’clock to-morrow we will have nothing to do. I want to see that these delegates around here get busy. I would like to make an amendment that we adjourn till one o’clock this afternoon. (Seconded.)

THE CHAIRMAN: An amendment has been offered that we adjourn till one o’clock this afternoon. The delegate will please confine his remarks to the question.

DEL. BARTLETT: A point of information. I have heard a call for the getting together of the Resolutions Committee and the Organization Committee, but they did not say anything about a Label and Emblem Committee. I would like to know whether they are to get together immediately after adjournment.

DEL. COATES: I would like to make a motion that we go on till we have gone through with the order of business. If we have any more business let us go through with it, and then if we have no further business let us adjourn. I think that in about fifteen minutes we can go through with the regular order of business. I move that the matter of adjournment be deferred until that time. (Seconded.)

DEL. SULLIVAN: I am opposed to the motion made by Brother Coates to defer, for the reason that the members of those various committees are probably in session and want to attend the sessions of this convention. There certainly can be no business before the convention until the committees report, and if any is ready they might transact their business. But it seems to me that the work of this convention must necessarily be delayed until a constitution is adopted, and I believe that the Committee on Constitution is entitled to the consideration of this convention of having this convention adjourn until within a reasonable time at least, to formulate a report. It is impossible for them to do so during the sessions and be present at the sessions, and I believe that the majority of them at least desire to attend, and they should have the privilege if they want to. Therefore I am in favor of the motion to adjourn until nine o’clock to-morrow.

Question called for.

THE CHAIRMAN: You are taking up an awful lot of time to vote on this proposition. The question is called for. The motion before the convention at this time is to defer action on the motion to adjourn until such time as the routine business has been disposed of. Those in favor of the motion will signify it by saying aye. Contrary no. Louder, please. Those in favor of the motion will signify it by saying aye. Contrary no. The ayes have it; the motion is carried. The Secretary will please read the communications.

The Secretary: I haven’t any more.

THE CHAIRMAN: There are no further communications. Report of Credentials Committee. Has the Credentials Committee any report to make?

DEL. ROWE: I just wish to ask for a point of information. I would like for the chair, if he possibly can, to announce to the delegates how many members of trades unions the delegates here assembled represent, so that we will be enabled to report to our constituents on that point. It has been said that the various delegations here represent about 150,000 members. I would like to know if we can get that information.

DEL. DE LEON: That is not possible at this time.

THE CHAIRMAN: I would request that the Secretary compile as soon as possible the information asked for by the delegate and be prepared to give it at the next session.


Secretary White, of the Credentials Committee, presented a verbal report from that committee, recommending the seating of Mr. Downey, of Lead, South Dakota, as a delegate with one vote.

On motion of Delegate De Leon, duly seconded, the report was concurred in and the delegate seated.

THE CHAIRMAN: Have the special committees any report to make?

No reports were offered.

THE CHAIRMAN: Reports of standing committees. For the Committee on Literature I desire to report progress. Has any of the other standing committees any report to make?

DEL. COATES: I want to report for the Resolutions Committee the fact that up to this time there have been only six members out of the twenty attending the sessions of the committee. We don’t want that kind of attendance at the next meeting. If we have it we are going to ask this convention to change the personnel of the committee.

THE CHAIRMAN: The members of the Resolutions Committee will take notice, and when the chairman of that committee announces a place of meeting let every member of the committee attend that meeting.

DEL. COATES: I was simply going to make that announcement. Now, while I have the floor here, I will say that the Resolutions Committee will meet at that table immediately after this morning’s adjournment, whatever time that is, and I want everybody there.

DEL. DINGER: I would ask, I being a member of the Resolutions Committee, that all resolutions be handed in before the closing of each session. Be ready here in the convention and hand them in and they will be referred to the Resolutions Committee.

THE CHAIRMAN: Are there any other reports of standing committees ?

DEL. MCKINNON: I wish to report that the Ways and Means Committee have not been able to get a quorum. If the committee don’t have a quorum we will have to change the committee, as two or three of us can’t possibly meet when there are twenty members of the committee. We will meet on the stage immediately after adjournment.

DEL. MOYER: The members of the Constitution Committee will meet immediately after adjournment in the adjoining hall.

DEL. REMLEY: The Organization Committee has nothing to report. We met on the stage last night, and there were only two or three of us. I would like to know who the members are and why we cannot get together. We can meet on the stage and select some place of meeting after adjournment.

DEL. MURTAUGH: It seems to me that there are a large number of individuals who are on committees that don’t know it. I have listened very attentively to the reading of committees by the Secretary to find out if possible who those representing themselves only in the convention were that were on the different committees, and from the reading of the Secretary I was unable to learn that. I believe that there are a large number in the same fix.

THE CHAIRMAN: Are there any further reports of standing committees?

DEL. COATES: I was just going to suggest, under that head, that it is pretty near time to appoint the Label and Emblem Committee.

THE CHAIRMAN: I have got it right here.

DEL. KING: Let the resolutions be read and submitted to the convention.

THE CHAIRMAN: They will be read and referred to the Resolutions Committee. And at this time the chair would like to say that if any delegate has a resolution to offer it will be accepted at this time. The Committee on Literature and Press will meet in the rear end of the hall immediately after adjournment. If there are any groups that made their selection for member of the Committee on Label and Emblem they will please hand it to the chair.


The Secretary then read the following resolutions:


To Provide for the Establishment and Maintenance of an Educational Bureau.

Whereas, The general apathy and indifference to their true interests on the part of the great body of the workers, an apathy and indifference created by the industrial conditions and maintained by the ignorance—fostering methods of the capitalist editors, writers, speakers, and supporters generally, present in many respects the most serious problem of industrial unionism; and

Whereas, This problem can be solved only by the most determined, persistent and systematic efforts at education on the part of this union; therefore be it

Resolved, That we hereby provide for the establishment of an Educational Bureau to consist of two divisions, as follows: First, a literature bureau to disseminate the knowledge and teachings of the class struggle found in the writings and speeches of such exponents thereof as Marx, Engels, Bebel, Lafargue and others of the same school in Europe and America, together with other works on science, history and economics, having direct or indirect bearing upon working class interests. Second, a lecture bureau to keep in the field of the American labor movement a constant supply of speakers and lecturers working in conjunction with the literature bureau. That said speakers and lecturers be chosen with a view to their fitness to teach the history and economics of the class struggle; that they be examined as to their fitness by a competent board of examiners; that each lecturer receive a stipulated salary from the bureau, said salary to be as low as possible so as to keep out unprincipled adventurers with no practical experience in the labor movement; that the locals provide entertainment for said speakers and lecturers while in their respective localities. Be it further

Resolved, That for the use and maintenance of said literature and lecture bureau this organization shall set apart fifty per, cent of its regular receipts for dues, and that the officers of the bureau shall furnish every six months to the local and general organizations full and complete reports of the money expended and the work done. And be it further

Resolved, That the substance of this resolution, together with any changes or additional provisions that may be necessary to carry it into effect, be embodied in the constitution of this organization.

(Resolution submitted by M. P. Haggerty, of the Butte Mill and Smeltermen’s Union, No. 74, of the Western Federation of Miners.)

THE CHAIRMAN: The resolution will be referred to the Constitution Committee.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Resolved, That it be the sense of this convention that a public ratification meeting be held not later than July 7th in this city; and

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to make suitable arrangements for the same.

(Thos. J. Hagerty.)

The Chairman: The resolution will be referred to the Committee on Ways and Means.


(Read by Delegate Murtaugh.)

Resolved, That it be the sense of this convention that the labor of each individual unit of society is necessary to the welfare of society, and that all are entitled to equal compensation.

THE CHAIRMAN: The resolution will be referred to the Committee on Constitution.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

In view of the fact that the first of May is the international holiday of the proletariat, be it

Resolved, That we, as industrial unionists, manifest our solidarity with the class conscious wage workers of the world by setting apart the first day of May as the holiday of the American proletariat.

(A. Klemensic.)

THE CHAIRMAN: The resolution just read will be referred to the Committee on Resolutions.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Whereas, Experiences of the past in various working class organizations have proved it to be dangerous to put much power into the hands of man by making him the head of an organization ; therefore, be it

Resolved, That we, of the Industrial Workers’ Club of Cincinnati, Ohio, oppose the plan of having a president as outlined in the diagram plan of organization, and favor an executive board, in turn to be controlled by representative committees of all industries in proportion to their dues-paying members as the convention may decide.

(Endorsed by the Industrial Workers’ Club of Cincinnati, Ohio, as instructions to Delegate Max Eisenberg.)

THE CHAIRMAN: That will be referred to the Committee on Constitution.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Resolved, That the seceding workers and seceding organizations in the A. F. of L. be required to make a public statement of the reasons of their secession, and furthermore that the rank and file in seceding organizations be thoroughly informed by a course of lectures or otherwise of our Manifesto and plan of organization before they be eligible to membership in the industrial union movement.

(Endorsed by the Industrial Workers’ Club of Cincinnati, Ohio, as instructions to Max Eisenberg.)

THE CHAIRMAN: That properly should be referred to the Committee on Good and Welfare. Not having such a committee, it will be referred to the Committee on Resolutions.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

To the Officers and Delegates to the Industrial Labor Convention

Whereas, By a call, issued from Chicago, January 2, 3, and 4, 1905, and known as the Manifesto for the purpose of uniting all the producers of wealth into one industrial labor organization in order to better enable the wage earners to wrest from the self-appointed guardians of the producing masses a just and appropriate share of the wealth which they create; and believing that the time has now arrived in the history of the trades unions when a radical change is necessary in their construction to successfully combat and meet the changed conditions and combined corporate control of the industries and business methods and the centralizing of all force where necessary. Lucrative positions or offices in present trades unions should be a secondary consideration. Self-consciousness should be eliminated from our desires. We must lay aside all personal ambition and see only the great benefit to be derived by the army of toilers and the advantage accruing to them. Our whole energies must at this time be used in an honest endeavor to bring together into one compact body the wage earners of all classes, trades and callings, regardless of their color or creed, and then we will be carrying out the oft-demonstrated fact that separately and singly we can be beaten, but collectively and combined into one and all sheltered by the same cover of a universal labor organization we are invincible. Believing that this can be accomplished and the intent and purpose of the Manifesto be observed and every part of it adhered to by adopting a plan of organizing the workers along trade lines giving absolute home rule to each of them, thereby eliminating the expensive and impotent system now in vogue, simplifying and making it possible for a more systematic organization to be organized, eliminating the wars and factions now so much in evidence, bringing the workers into closer relationship with the working machinery of their own organization and locally organizing the workers industrially and centralizing their power by cities, concentrating all into one compact body internationally.

(Alex. Fairgrieve.)

THE CHAIRMAN: The resolution will be referred to the Committee on Organization.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Whereas, The universality of the class struggle between the wage working class and the capitalist class being a recognized and accepted fact by this industrial union convention; and

Whereas, There is an identity of interests between the wage workers and a common antagonism of interest existing among the workers as against said capitalistic class; be it

Resolved, By this convention, that we recommend as a final solution of the class struggle the social general strike as the most effective warfare for plutocratic capitalism and to inaugurate a universal democracy for the workers.

(Max Barthold, Industrial Workers’ Club of Chicago.)

THE CHAIRMAN: That will be referred to the Committee on Resolutions.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Resolved, That it is the sense of this convention to endorse and provide a perfect system of commercial co-operation.

(W. F. Morrison, Houston, Tex.)

THE CHAIRMAN: This will be referred to the Committee on Ways and Means.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Resolution offered by Delegate E. Bosky.

Whereas, The knowledge of economic laws is not apparent in this convention; and

Whereas, The construction of a new constitution for a new economic movement depends upon the quality of the construction material used for the purpose;

Resolved, That this convention decide upon a time when a discussion of this subject is to take place.

THE CHAIRMAN: That will be referred to the Committee on Resolutions.


(Read by Delegate Hall.)

Whereas, The maintenance and development of an independent and efficient labor press being essential to the militant working class movement, the effort to extend and improve the organization of the workers must comprehend and include the direct welfare of the labor press; and

Whereas, It is obvious that the present relation of the labor press to the working class is inadequate in that it does not fully nor satisfactorily reflect the activity, interests and aims of the workers ; and

Whereas, We recognize that this condition can only be remedied by an unhampered liberty of speech, a sound and effectual propagation of economic science, a universal system of independent newsgathering, and a democratic spirit preserved and expressed both in the various labor journals and in the union of the entire labor press by an Associated Labor Press; therefore, be it

Resolved, That the Press and Literature Committee be instructed to urge the democratic union of the labor press to the end that its relations to the workers will become true and its power for education and for battle greater by a practical effort to that end.

(Joseph J. O’Brien.)

THE CHAIRMAN: That will be, referred to the Committee on Literature and Press.


Resolved, That the name of this union be the Industrial Union. The Chairman: That will be referred to the Committee on Constitution.


Resolved, That it be the sense of this convention that only those who are wage workers be eligible to membership in this organization.

THE CHAIRMAN: That will be referred to the Committee on Constitution.


Resolved, That this new industrial organization be instituted on July 4th as Independence Day for the wage workers.

THE CHAIRMAN: That will be referred to the Committee on Resolutions.


First—I suggest that the name of this organization shall be the International Toilers’ Union.

Second—This organization shall not condemn any individual for his occupation. His occupation may be unuseful for society, but he is not to blame. But it must condemn the system which produces such individual.

Third—Any individual who performs any duty for this society, and also the individual occupations that can be used in a future society, a door shall be open to them.

Fourth—That it must also provide that every individual could come in; that is, no big initiation fees or high dues.

Fifth—I would suggest that we should establish a central organization, and we shall only charge twenty-five cents initiation fee, and twenty-five cents a year dues. This shall make the individual a member only of the central organization, but he shall also be a member of the local organization which will be a part of this great central organization, and the local initiation fees and dues shall be so low that it shall be in the reach of every workingman.

Sixth—It shall have an international manager or secretary and a national secretary or manager, and its officers, secretaries, organizers or editors shall be paid the same wages as they could make from their own occupations.

Seventh—The organization shall establish a publication, and it shall be supported by the international dues-paying members. The 25 cents a year that every members will pay will probably pay the expenses of the international, national. and state officers. If any individual does not want to belong to a local union which is a part of the central organization he may be a member of this body by only paying in 25 cents initiation fee and 25 cents a year, but the locals shall make it so convenient for members and be reasonable and shall have power to take in the individual in a local union.

Eighth—The meetings shall be public; No secrets, because secrets manufacture spies.

Ninth—This organization must be organized on the class struggle, and the working man shall be taught higher wages only shall not be his aim, but to get the full product of his labor, and so educate him to establish universal peace. At the same time the working man shall not take orders in the shape of a soldier to shoot down his own fellow workingmen.

Respectfully submitted,


THE CHAIRMAN: That will be referred to the Committee on Constitution. Are there any further resolutions?

No further resolutions were offered.


THE CHAIRMAN: The members of the Label and Emblem Committee are: W. F. Cronin, A. L. U.; T. B. Jackson, S. T. & L. A.; J. A. Ayers, Paper Hangers; A. H. Williamson, U. B. R. E.; Thomas De Young, U. R. R. S. The chair selects Albert S. Cogswell, Chas. Nickolaus and Chas. Kiehn. Is there any further business to come before the convention?

DEL. C. O. SHERMAN: We are now organized and prepared co go ahead and do business. I believe it would be perfectly proper for this convention to have a motion prevail that no more credentials will be received of delegates to sit in this convention. My purpose in saying so is that from the appearance of the credentials that have been coming in they have been dragging along. I claim that there is no excuse now for any one not being here. If it is acceptable I will make a motion to that effect. (Seconded.)

THE CHAIRMAN: The chair will entertain the motion, inasmuch as it is to be decided by the convention. The motion is that no further credentials be accepted and no other delegates be seated. You have heard the motion. Are you ready for the question? (Question called for.)

DEL. JORGENSEN, CHICAGO: Mr. Chairman, this convention has assembled, and there are in this city organizations that desire to know something of what is being done here, whose members when they know the situation will want to come in and carry on the great fight that we have begun. During this week many of these labor organizations in Chicago will have their meetings. Before Monday night all will have had their meetings. The news of this organization will spread out to those organizations that have no representation here. The Carpenters and a few other local organizations only have representatives here. During the week they will all have meetings, and they are liable to send delegates here next Monday. Between now and Monday we will have a chance to report back to our constituents, and I will guarantee that the report that I will give of this body will be favorable. (Applause.) If I am able to convince every man in that body (carpenters) that carries this working card and this due book, I will do so. I only wish that I had the ability to explain what is going on in this convention to my union, as some of those men that have spoken on the floor can do. I think I would have accomplished a good deal. But being a foreigner, not born in this country, I must say that in the twenty-five years that I have been here I have not been able to pick up the language so as to handle it perfectly, although I may have the will. Now, I am not going to drift away from the question that is before the house. I think that we ought to extend the seating of delegates to Monday night on this ground that I have stated. Let us have all that we can at this convention. Let us say like the Salvation Army says, “It pays to hold a big meeting if you can save only one soul.” It pays to extend the time for seating delegates until Monday night. As long as we are receiving any delegates I cannot see why the door should be closed. Let us keep the business of receiving delegates open as late as possible so as to hear from all organizations and not only those that we have heard from so far. I think we should extend the seating of delegates to Monday night on the ground that I have just stated. I make an amendment to the motion, that the seating of delegates be extended till Monday night. (Seconded.)

THE CHAIRMAN: The amendment is that credentials be accepted till Monday night. Is that the amendment?

DEL. JORGENSEN: That is the amendment.

THE CHAIRMAN: You have heard the amendment. Are you ready for the question? The mover of this motion, Charles O. Sherman, has the floor.

DEL. SHERMAN: I did not make that motion with the intent of shutting out any one that comes here with good intent. This proposition has been advertised since January, and the organizations have had ample time to make preparation for delegates and other preparations to attend this convention. I believe that every organization that will come here with power to act has come. They have taken their time, and have come here to form an organization and pledge that organization that they will support this organization when formed. They are here now, all that are coming. (Applause.) I believe, or want to believe, that every delegate that has been seated in this convention has come here with a heart for humanity, that wants to see the working class organized into a class-conscious movement that will move together. We recognize the fact that this hall holds many delegates that are here representing nothing but themselves, but they are representing behind them an army of men who are contributing to an organization that will throw bombs and all other forces against this organization, no matter what it may be when it is formed. They are supporting a movement that is to-day using their national officers and their national forces to destroy what we are trying to build up in this body. (Applause.) They say we are revolutionists. If we are, let us do as revolutionists do—know our friends by their acts. The revolutionists of the trades union movement are in no way affiliated with the American Federation of Labor or any other scab federation. (Applause.) They. are outside of all organizations that pay tribute to any parasite that sits in the halls of New York and eats scab bread and smokes scab cigars. (Applause.) They are on record. They do not pay tribute financially, but they have kept their finances, what little they have, and they have done what little they could to organize this organization free from parasites. I want to be distinctly understood that I have no feeling against any delegate here, because I feel that they came here to do what little they could to further the interests of the working class. But I do say that those that are here without an organization backing them, though they will carry out the principles that are laid down in this organization when it is formed, I claim that they only represent themselves, and I believe we have got enough of them here now. I thank you. (Applause.)

DEL. SAUNDERS: I wish to say that I am heartily in favor of the amendment to the original motion, and I wish to give any reasons. The motion, to my view, is one that would probably undo the work of our worthy brother that has just spoken. I take it for granted that his intentions are good, as well as I believe we could say the same of every one that is in this hall, although we may differ on some things now and may later on. But when we start our actions by excluding some one whom we first of all say we do not fear, it goes without saying and it carries with it the idea that we do fear. I believe as he said, that there are enough in this convention at the present time to make it apparent to any sensible minded person that this movement is now established. And to bar out any individual, even though he or she may come in here derogatory or opposed to this movement, I come back again and use my words that there are enough here, at least in my estimation, to outweigh those individuals. I take exception to the brother when he says that we have enough. If it is a good thing we cannot have too much of it. It is going to be determined whether it is a good thing by the actions of this body. To pass this original motion would, to my mind, be against the idea of it being good. I want to say, although I represent an organization that has so far stood aloof as far as giving their delegates a right to install, we have at least shown a disposition, or they have shown a disposition to find out, and have come here to learn, and I believe that even though there may be some individuals who may come in here from now till Monday night who would have ulterior motives, yet at the same time among them may be some with other motives, and we should not by any action of this convention bar any one. If we do not fear them, then let us show it by our action and vote the original motion down and adopt the amendment. I also take exception to the brother when he slays that this movement is a movement of individuals that have a heart for humanity. If I understand the Manifesto aright it is simply a movement born of the necessity of the working class coming together for their emancipation, and not for humanity. (Applause.) We have heard enough of this humanitarianism. Let our actions, whatever they may be, be prompted by a clear understanding of our economic environment. When we do this we teach those that do not understand it. I believe this movement will probably be the one that may possibly be the emancipation of the working class. (Applause.)

DEL. PAT O’NEIL: I am surprised at some of the remarks I have listened to. The gentleman said we don’t want any more men coming into this convention representing no one but themselves. If that is true, then I am one too many here; you know I represent no one but myself. I understood the terms of that Manifesto to be that every man in the United States, whether there was an organization behind him who at an expense of a few dollars sent him to represent them or not, was entitled to a seat and voice in this convention, and I came here in perfect good faith feeling that way.

DEL. DINGER: The others didn’t come.

DEL. O’NEIL: I came and I am here. Now, it does not seem to me that we have a right to close the door against any man who wants to come in here. For instance, looking over the daily papers this morning, I see that there is a general jubilation among the delegates that some organizations are about to go to pieces. There may be other unions that we know nothing about that are about to do the same thing. How can we tell what other men are going to do? Suppose some union men to-day, utterly disgusted at the present conditions and management, should call for a meeting tonight and send a delegate here to-morrow, we should not like very well to refuse them a seat. It does not look to me that we would want to. It seems to me, from what I have heard here, that we would have just as much right to pass a resolution here that we don’t want any more men ever—to join the organization—except those that are here and the ones they represent, as we have to deny any delegate a seat in the house. (Applause.) If we are going before the people of the United States and Canada and Mexico and the balance of the world asking men to join this organization, you have no right to refuse a man entrance here now any more than you will have afterwards. (Applause.) If he comes here with credentials representing somebody, well and good. But if he comes here representing just himself I believe in seating that man and giving him a right to have a voice here. I cannot help but feel that way. And as far as delegates being brought in here from Chicago to swamp this thing, it will take a whole lot of votes to do it, when the Western Federation of Miners is here with 27,000 votes in one bunch. Possibly my views may not be liked by all the people in this convention, but I am for the widest and fullest discussion possible. I do not believe it is safe to get a man into this organization unless he thoroughly understands where he is at. I have seen many men come. into the Socialist movement on the spur of the moment and become members of locals until election day, and when it came time to do something they laid down flat.

DEL. SHERMAN: With the consent of my second I withdraw that motion in order that the committees may get to work. (Applause.)

THE CHAIRMAN: Does the delegate who offered the amendment withdraw the amendment?

DEL. JORGENSEN: What is that?

THE CHAIRMAN: The delegate who offered the original motion requests the privilege of withdrawing his motion. I ask, do you withdraw your amendment?

DEL. JORGENSEN: That would be the greatest pleasure to me. Mother Jones then made an announcement in regard to the sale of a book on the Colorado strikes.

The convention then at eleven o’clock adjourned until tomorrow morning at nine o’clock.